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ILT and CRD

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1 ILT and CRD on Mon Nov 04, 2013 1:04 pm

HigginsRAT


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Last edited by HigginsRAT on Thu Jan 02, 2014 10:40 am; edited 1 time in total

http://www.wolven.ca/higgins/ratranch/

2 Re: ILT and CRD on Mon Nov 04, 2013 2:33 pm

Hidden River

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Tara you bring up some good points. One thing I do disagree on is the ILT vaccine.
I have in the past purchased ILT I-Vax, it is the eye drop vaccine, purchased it here in Canada, and it is non shedding. You are to do your birds at 6 weeks of age, booster again 4 weeks later. If doing adult birds you do it then booster 4 weeks later. It is BEST if you wait 1 week after the booster before exposing your birds to probable virus. These birds do not become shedders of ILT with this vaccine, it is just advised to wait 1 week after you are done the series so the birds have adequate antibodies built up to protect them.
I strongly agree with Tara that if you are going to show your birds VACCINATE them!
Nothing you can do to protect your birds at a show from CRD, but do quarantine when you get home, for a LONG time, it can take these birds a while to show any symptoms of this disease and it is just not worth risking your entire flock at home.



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Raising Heritage Chickens, Guinea Fowl, Waterfowl, Katahdin Sheep, Angus and Jersey Cattle. Mother of 2 wonderful girls and wife to a very understanding Husband.
www.hiddenriverranch.weebly.com
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3 Re: ILT and CRD on Mon Nov 04, 2013 2:43 pm

Schipperkesue

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Not to mention that YOU risk spreading the virus to OTHERS if you do not inoculate.

4 Re: ILT and CRD on Mon Nov 04, 2013 2:46 pm

authenticfarm

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Here's the info sheet on LT-IVAX from Merck.

LT-IVAX*
Intervet/Merck Animal Health
Fowl Laryngotracheitis Vaccine
Modified Live Virus

DIRECTIONS FOR USE, READ CAREFULLY
LT-IVAX vaccine is a live virus vaccine of chicken tissue culture origin containing a carefully selected fowl laryngotracheitis virus strain modified by passage in tissue culture. Because of the highly modified character of this vaccine, it does not offer the same degree of protection usually obtained from more virulent products. This vaccine contains a very mild attenuated virus and there is no danger of seeding down the premises with laryngotracheitis virus which can spread and cause the disease. For use in chickens 4 weeks of age or older, as an aid in preventing fowl laryngotracheitis through vaccination by the EYEDROP METHOD, according to the following schedule.

WHEN TO VACCINATE

INITIAL VACCINATION
4 weeks of age

REVACCINATION
10 weeks of age or older

YOUR VACCINATION PROGRAM
The development of a durable, strong protection depends upon the use of an effective vaccination program as well as many circumstances such as administration techniques, environment and flock health at time of vaccination. Also, the immune response to one vaccination under field conditions is seldom complete for all animals within a given flock. Even when vaccination is successful, the protection stimulated in individual animals against different diseases may not be life long.
If necessary, the vaccine may be used to aid in limiting the spread of an outbreak; however, only birds not yet infected with the virulent outbreak virus can be protected.
Examination of birds for vaccination “takes” is unnecessary and so-called “takes” are not to be expected. As with all live virus vaccines, a mild transitory reaction may occur in a small portion of the flock, and with LT-IVAX this is generally limited to a mild, localized eye reaction of short duration.

CONTRAINDICATIONS
The application of Newcastle Disease or Bronchitis Vaccine, either singly or in combination should be avoided for a three day period prior to and for three days after the application of LT-IVAX.

PREPARATION OF THE VACCINE
1. Do not open and mix the vaccine until ready for use.
2. Mix only one vial at a time and use entire contents within 2 hours.
3. Remove the tear-off aluminum seal and stopper from vial containing the dried vaccine.
4. Remove the tear-off aluminum seal and stopper from the bottle containing the diluent. Insert long end of adapter into diluent bottle.
5. Hold the diluent bottle firmly in an upright position and insert the vaccine vial on the adapter of the diluent bottle. The neck of the vaccine vial should snap into position and should be seated securely on the adapter on the diluent bottle.
6. Invert the two containers so that the vaccine vial is on the bottom and allow the diluent to flow into the vaccine vial. If the diluent does not flow freely, squeeze the diluent bottle gently and the diluent will flow into the vaccine vial. The vaccine vial should be completely filled with diluent to prevent excess foaming.
7. Hold the joined containers by the ends; shake vigorously until the vaccine plug is completely dissolved.
8. Return the joined containers to their original position (diluent bottle on the bottom). Allow the vaccine to flow into the diluent bottle. If the vaccine does not flow into the diluent bottle, tap or squeeze the diluent bottle gently and release to draw the vaccine into the diluent bottle. Be sure all the product is removed from the vaccine vial.
9. Remove the vaccine vial and adapter from the neck of the diluent bottle and insert dropper applicator into plastic diluent bottle.
10. The vaccine is now ready to use.
11. Wash hands thoroughly after mixing the vaccine.

HOW TO VACCINATE
Vaccination for LT by the EYEDROP METHOD is conducted by allowing one full drop of rehydrated vaccine to fall into the open eye of the bird and hold until the bird swallows. Hold dropper bottle in vertical position throughout vaccination to avoid wasting vaccine.

CAUTION
1. For veterinary use only.
2. Vaccinate only healthy birds. Although disease may not be evident, coccidiosis, chronic respiratory disease, mycoplasma infection, lymphoid leukosis, infectious bursal disease, Marek’s disease, or other disease conditions may cause serious complications or reduce protection.
3. An eye reaction may be noticed if birds are incubating coryza or other infectious organisms, or if there is excess ammonia or dust in the air of the housing facilities.
4. In outbreak situations, vaccinate healthy birds first, progressing toward outbreak areas in order to vaccinate diseased birds last.
5. Do not spill or spatter the vaccine. Use entire contents of vial when first opened. Burn empty bottles, caps and all unused vaccine and accessories.
6. Do not dilute the vaccine or otherwise stretch the dosage.
7. Store at 2° to 7° C (35° to 45° F).
8. Do not vaccinate within 21 days of slaughter.

RECORDS
Keep a record of vaccine type, quantity, serial number, expiration date, and place of purchase; the date and time of vaccination; the number, age, breed, and location of the birds; names of operators performing the vaccination and any observed reactions.

This vaccine contains gentamicin as a preservative.

http://www.partridgechanteclers.com

5 Re: ILT and CRD on Mon Nov 04, 2013 8:49 pm

HigginsRAT


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Last edited by HigginsRAT on Thu Jan 02, 2014 10:40 am; edited 1 time in total

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6 Re: ILT and CRD on Tue Nov 05, 2013 8:20 am

appway

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This seems to be the talked about subject lately which is good as it should be out there for the people to read about and decide how they will handle their Vaccine protocol.
are people Following the suggestions in the above post IE:
RECORDS
Keep a record of vaccine type, quantity, serial number, expiration date, and place of purchase; the date and time of vaccination; the number, age, breed, and location of the birds; names of operators performing the vaccination and any observed reactions.
Also on the Alberta web site it states
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a viral infection of the respiratory tract (windpipes) of chickens, pheasants and peafowl. It can spread rapidly among birds and causes high death losses in susceptible poultry. Turkeys, ducks and geese do not get the disease, but they can spread the virus. ILT does not affect humans, but people can spread the virus on their clothing or equipment. ILT is a reportable disease in Alberta. Suspected or confirmed outbreaks of ILT must be reported to the Office of the Chief Provincial Veterinarian within 24 hours.
http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex2216

So I guess even waterfowl is even a carrier

I am enjoying the read thanks everyone. It is nice reading a calm discussion about it and not rumours being spread on the internet about it

7 Re: ILT and CRD on Tue Nov 05, 2013 8:55 am

authenticfarm

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I have a PDF file from the Alberta Avian Veterinarian with information on ILT, dated September 19, 2013, which I am assuming was created in response to the two cases of ILT in the Cold Lake area in late August 2013. I am copying/pasting the info here, but if anyone would like me to send them the PDF file via e-mail, I would be happy to do that. There are some photos in the PDF that don't copy/paste. Wink

I also have a PDF file on Small Flock Poultry Health from the Canadian Government if anyone would like to receive it. It's quite large, so I won't post it here, but I am happy to forward it along.

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT) in Poultry
Introduction
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a respiratory disease of chickens, pheasants, pheasant crosses and peafowl. It is highly contagious and is spread either by infected birds or other birds through mechanical means. There is an age-dependent resistance to this disease, as most birds under the age of three weeks do not get infected. It affects the trachea (windpipe), lungs, nasal sinuses and conjunctiva (eye lids). Clinical signs vary depending on the severity of the infection. Clinical signs related to severe forms of the virus include nasal discharge, coughing, gasping, difficulty breathing (with neck extensions and open mouth breathing), coughing blood or blood-stained mucus, a severe drop in egg production and an increase in flock mortality. Clinical signs associated with mild forms of the disease include general unthriftiness, decreased egg production, watery eyes with conjunctivitis, swelling of the sinuses and persistent nasal discharge. The number of birds in the flock that are affected by this disease can vary from 5% to 100%, depending on the severity of the infection. Mortality varies from no death loss to 20% mortality in the flock. This disease can cause illness in birds for a few days to a couple of weeks.

The Cause of ILT
ILT is caused by a herpes virus: Gallid herpesvirus 1. This is a herpes virus of the same family as the herpes simplex virus 1 that causes cold sores in humans. As such, their mechanism of transfer is similar. These herpesviruses have the capability to establish latency in nerves such as, the trigeminal ganglia (TGG), which is a nerve bundle in the brain. While in the TGG, the virus is safe from the body’s defense mechanisms. The virus resides in this location until something (stress, new flock introductions etc.) triggers the latent virus to become active and infectious. When this happens, the virus is said to “recrudesce” and can therefore produce lesions and/or disease and spread to other susceptible host animals. Although less likely, the herpes viruses can also be transmitted during latency. Asymptomatic reactivation means that the virus causes atypical, subtle or hard to notice clinical signs that are not identified as an active ILT infection. Herpes viruses establish lifelong infections, and the virus cannot be eradicated from the body.

Public Health Significance
There is no evidence to suggest that Gallid herpesvirus 1 is transmissible to humans or to other mammals. Therefore, it is considered safe to consume meat and eggs from ILT infected birds.

How does ILTV spread?
ILT is uncommon in commercial poultry operations in Alberta. ILT is most often diagnosed in hobby or fancy flocks. Adequate biosecurity is difficult in these smaller flocks as new birds are added on an ongoing basis from various sources without implementing proper quarantine. Some exotic species, such as pheasants and peafowl, can also carry the virus and spread it to resident birds. Many species of wild birds, including crows, sparrows and pigeons, appear resistant to infection with ILT. Wild birds might act as mechanical vectors for ILT virus. The most important means of spreading ILT is by direct contact between susceptible and infected birds. The virus can also be carried into poultry houses or other farms on contaminated equipment and vehicles, or on dirty footwear and clothing. Humans can be implicated in the spread of infection between farms.

Preventing ILT
Following an effective biosecurity plan is essential to prevent the introduction of viral diseases,
including ILT, into a flock. Biosecurity plans must be continually evaluated. Commitment,
dedication and persistence by all farm staff and residents are required for success. The
essential elements of biosecurity include the following:
 The best prevention is to only purchase birds from a source that is known to be free of
ILT or maintain a closed flock (no additions from other flocks). Remember, birds can
appear clinically normal when purchased, yet be infected with ILT and shed this virus to
healthy resident birds if they have been stressed.
 If you do purchase birds, they should be isolated on your farm for 21 days before being
mixed with your resident birds. During this time, they should be monitored for illness and
properly vaccinated for ILT (see below). Strict biosecurity procedures should be in place
to prevent any infectious agent from spreading from these birds to other birds on your
property. Despite these precautions, a quarantine period may not be sufficient to detect
the apparently healthy carriers of ILT and they may still be able to infect the resident
flock once taken out of quarantine.
 In consultation with your veterinarian, you should establish a vaccination program that
will help to protect your flock from ILT and other important poultry diseases.
 Consult a veterinarian as soon as clinical signs of any illness are observed to determine
the cause of sick or dying birds. The clinical signs of ILT can mimic those produced by
Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bronchitis. Early detection of highly
contagious viruses is essential to minimize the impact of them on your birds; as well as,
those of your neighbours.
 Do not allow other people to enter your barns, especially if they have contact with other
poultry. Do not visit other poultry farms or barns unless proper biosecurity precautions
are taken.
 Provide clean boots and coveralls for anyone who must enter your barns or bird holding
areas.
 Restrict vehicle traffic on your farm site to specific areas away from your birds to prevent
spreading contamination into your barns.
 Be vigilant in preventing other animal’s (dogs, cats, rodents, wild birds, etc.) access to
your poultry barns.
 Prevent contamination of feed and water by agents such as, wild birds, animals, and
other sources.
 Store dead carcasses in a closed container until they can be disposed of according to
the requirements of the Destruction and Disposal of Dead Animals Regulation:
http://www.qp.alberta.ca/documents/Regs/2000_229.pdf. Also, confirm with your local
authorities regarding appropriate carcass disposal (e.g. incineration, burial, compost).
 Employees of commercial farms should not have flocks of poultry or fancy birds of their own at home.
 Perform a thorough cleanout and disinfection between flocks. The ILT virus can survive for variable lengths of time depending on ambient temperature (e.g. warmer temperatures reduce survivability). The virus is inactivated more quickly when exposed to sunlight or disinfectants.

Three types of vaccine are available:
1. Recombinant (rLT) vaccine – may be administered at the hatchery in 18 day old embryos or day old chicks. This vaccine also currently contains protection against Marek’s Disease. Vaccine virus is not shed; therefore, unvaccinated birds are not at risk. Contact your hatchery if you wish to implement this option.
2. Tissue culture origin (TCO) vaccine – administered as an eye drop to each chicken. This vaccine can be administered in the face of an outbreak to help reduce shedding of the virus. This is a live virus vaccine that will not revert to virulence and is the one currently recommended.
3. Chick embryo origin (CEO) vaccine – strongly not recommended because this vaccine virus can revert to virulence and cause severe disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated birds.

It is important to know that if you vaccinate while the birds are sick, they may continue to shed the virus. Vaccinating sick birds reduces their potential to shed in the future.

ILT vaccines, because they are live virus vaccines, must be kept refrigerated and used within the specified time frame (according to manufacturer’s directions) to maintain their viability and assure the best immune response.

Controlling and reporting ILT outbreaks
ILT can only be confirmed by examination of dead birds and special laboratory tests. Ante mortem (live animal) testing to confirm ILT is not available. Treatment with antibiotics is of no value because ILT is a viral infection. In most situations, early slaughter or depopulation of the flock is the best solution.

Outbreaks of ILT in Alberta must be reported within 24 hours to the Office of the Chief Provincial Veterinarian (OCPV). Poultry boards, hatcheries and feed companies are notified when ILT is diagnosed, without releasing the exact location of the outbreak. If you are registered with the Premise ID System you will be notified if your premises are located within 20 km of an outbreak. This notice serves as a reminder to producers and industry to enhance flock biosecurity and to report any suspicious losses to the OCPV.

Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development currently has two programs focussed on the health of small or fancy flocks. One is available to producers and veterinarians who wish to submit non quota birds for nonspecific disease testing. Through this program, ILT can be diagnosed along with other diseases. An affiliated program is specifically directed towards ILT outbreaks. Both programs are at no cost to the producer.

Prepared by: Dr. Colleen Christianson               September 19, 2013



Last edited by authenticfarm on Tue Nov 05, 2013 8:56 am; edited 1 time in total

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8 Re: ILT and CRD on Tue Nov 05, 2013 8:55 am

Hidden River

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From the talk I attended Waterfowl is a carrier only in the sense a person is. The waterfowl can track the feces or dust on their feet/feathers and transmit it that way. If you were to show your waterfowl, take them home and wash them again, keep them away from your other birds for a bit for the dust in their nasal cavity to be cleaned out then they would not pass it on.
Same for people attending shows, it is advised that you have a separate set of clothes, blow your nose to clear out any dust that might have settled in there, and shower before doing anything with your flock you should be safe.

Seems a bit overkill I know, that is what I thought at the presentation, but if you want to be absolutely safe this is what they advise.


_________________
Raising Heritage Chickens, Guinea Fowl, Waterfowl, Katahdin Sheep, Angus and Jersey Cattle. Mother of 2 wonderful girls and wife to a very understanding Husband.
www.hiddenriverranch.weebly.com
http://www.hiddenriverranch.weebly.com

9 Re: ILT and CRD on Tue Nov 05, 2013 9:21 am

HigginsRAT


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Last edited by HigginsRAT on Thu Jan 02, 2014 10:41 am; edited 1 time in total

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10 Re: ILT and CRD on Tue Nov 05, 2013 9:30 am

appway

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Good Post Tara

and Thank you for the post Authenticfarm of the PDf

Like I said interesting Facts being said and I hope others follow what all is being said
Alot stems down to Honesty of the Vaccine

11 Re: ILT and CRD on Tue Nov 05, 2013 1:13 pm

authenticfarm

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HigginsRAT wrote:My name is Tara and I plugged the birds to sink people...oh the shame!  Crying or Very sad
Enabler!!!! Laughing 

http://www.partridgechanteclers.com

12 Re: ILT and CRD on Wed Nov 06, 2013 1:02 pm

HigginsRAT


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Last edited by HigginsRAT on Thu Jan 02, 2014 10:41 am; edited 1 time in total

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13 Re: ILT and CRD on Sun Nov 24, 2013 10:50 pm

Echo 1

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Really great information here! Considering taking a few birds to the Vernon show in February.....Better get me some vaccine!

14 Re: ILT and CRD on Mon Nov 25, 2013 12:07 am

islandgal99

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Thank you for sharing the info. I'm torn on the whole idea of vaccinating poultry. I worked at an animal shelter where we had not one, but two, vaccination disasters. The first was our shelter animals being exposed to distemper - now that was a whole drama in itself with the infected dog, the vet denying the dog would have distemper (because we hadn't had distemper in our area for 10 years), the airplane pilot refusing to transport it to the provincial lab, and then 10 days later every dog present at the time sick from distemper INCLUDING the sheltie that was 7 years old and vaccinated as per vaccine protocols at the time. Not a single animal was protected, vaccine or not, and some of the vaccinated dogs were MORE sick than the non-vaccinated ones. The second was a group of dogs vaccinated at the shelter, and the next day developed a 1/10,000 reaction to the vacccine, but the reaction was 100% - the iris of the eyes in the dogs turned blue, and it appeared as though I had a shelter full of devil dogs. Was the creepiest thing I've ever seen. No accountability by the drug company for that either. Infact, I was told "your little shelter will be shut down" if I told anyone or if the news hit the papers...I would have done things different today and knowing the power of social media, but back then I had a newborn baby to feed and couldn't afford to lose my job, my $20,000 per year job then. Same companies today make the poultry vaccines. Scared the heck out of me. Undecided as to what to do. And still appreciate the information, and part of the reason I don't show. I grew up on a large scale hog farm, and we never visited other hog farms nor allowed other hog farmers to visit, and had a strict bio-secure farm even way back then - bleach water foot baths even back then. My father never allowed me to take any of my chickens to shows, said the risks were to great to show, but that was also not knowing what we were dealing with. And even now, I'm terrified of the risks....one bad bird, and everything will be destroyed. Sad

http://www.matadorfarm.ca

15 Re: ILT and CRD on Mon Nov 25, 2013 7:24 am

HigginsRAT


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Last edited by HigginsRAT on Thu Jan 02, 2014 10:42 am; edited 1 time in total

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16 Re: ILT and CRD on Fri Nov 29, 2013 6:02 am

Schipperkesue

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